A New Nation Comes to the Indian Country
The Fur Trade New Settlers Miners Ranchers Missionaries and Teachers


Day School at Independence

In the early twentieth century, the Indian Office insisted that the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara families living on the Fort Berthold reservation could become “civilized” if they abandoned their traditional riverfront villages and moved into small, single-family units. The Mandans moved south of the Missouri, the Arikaras moved east, and the Hidatsas north. One group of Hidatsa families—led by Edward Goodbird, his mother Buffalo Bird Woman, and his uncle Wolf Chief—formed a new community called Independence, on a hill overlooking a sharp turn in the river.

Olin Dunbar Wheeler. “Day School at Independence <#8221;,1904.

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Newberry Library