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William Clark's Nez Perce Son

Many members of the Corps of Discovery had sexual relationships with women from the tribes who hosted them along the trail. One Nez Perce woman bore William Clark's son, Halaftooki (Daytime Smoke), following the Americans' stay with her tribe in 1806.

A tribal elder by the 1860s, Halaftooki hoped that his heritage would insulate him from the growing conflict between the Nez Perces and white miners and settlers. However, when fighting broke out in 1877, he fled across the mountains with his kinsmen, and was captured with Chief Joseph.

It is believed that Halaftooki married into the Salish people and had a daughter, Mary, who in turn had a daughter Eugenia, great grand daughter of William Clark.

Zimmerman Portrait Gallery. William Clark’s Indian Son, Halaftooki (Daytime Smoke), c1865-1866.

Courtesy of the Minnesota Historical Society