The Persistence of Nahua Culture

“Indigenous Farmers of Tultepec vs. Spanish Rancher Juan Antonio Covarrubias, showing lands in the Tultepec and Xaltocán regions adjacent to the Hacienda de Santa Inés”
Pen-and-ink and watercolor on European paper backed with amatl, 1569

This legal document records the resolution of a land use dispute between indigenous farmers of Tultepec and Spanish rancher Juan Antonio Covarrubias. As a result of this suit, livestock were restricted to the area outlined in red and boundary markers (mojones); the area outside the red area was designated for cultivated fields. The largest church, Santa María Nativitas, indicates Tultepec, and smaller churches mark subsidiary towns. The small buildings are indigenous houses and the large structure in the upper left is Covarrubias’ estate. The document is written in Spanish and the painting is on European paper backed with amatl.

Newberry Library: Vault Ayer 1801 Map 1

Back to Section