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European Inspirations

Chapter Two of The Plan of Chicago, “City Planning in Ancient and Modern Times,” situated the project within the long history of urban design. It charts urban planning’s history from the building of Babylon, Egypt, and Athens, and Rome to medieval and Renaissance cities, and conclude with eighteenth and nineteenth century European and American examples. Manila and Baguio City in the Philippines, for which Burnham and Bennett had recently executed plans, are also mentioned. Burnham and Bennett devote the largest portion of the chapter to major cities in Western and Central Europe, most especially to Vienna, Berlin, London, and Paris. It was from these cities, and the classical models that had shaped them over the previous three centuries, that City Beautiful Movement drew its aesthetic inspiration and its sense of urban function and structure.



Abercrombie, Patrick. “Vienna: Parts I and II,” The Town Planning Review, vol. 1, no. 3 (October,1910): 220-34.

Aibar, Eduardo and Wiebe E. Bijker. “Constructing a City: The Cerdá Plan for the Extension of Barcelona.” Science, Technology, & Human Values 22 (Winter 1977): 3-30.

Busquets, Joan. Barcelona: The Urban Evolution of a Compact City. Nicolodi & Harvard University Graduate School of Design: Actar Distribution, 2006.

Costa, Carme Fiol. Réticules I Diagonals: El Plan Jaussely de Barcelona de 1907 I el Plan Burnham de Chicago de 1909. Barcelona: Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 2007.

DeJean, Joan. How Paris Became Paris: The Invention of the Modern City. New York: Bloomsbury, 2014.

Girouard, Mark. Cities and People: A Social and Architectural History. New Haven: Yale, 1985

Hall, Peter. Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.

Kagan, Richard L. Spanish Cities of the Golden Age: The Views of Anton van den Wyngaerde. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

Kristof, Spiro. The City Assembled: The Elements of Urban Form Through History. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992.

Morini, Mario. Atlante di Storia Dell’Urbanistica (Dalla Preistoria all’inizio del Secolo XX), Milan: Editore Ulrico Hoepli, 1963.

Mumford, Lewis. The City in History. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1961.

Pinkney, David H. Napoleon III and the Rebuilding of Paris. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958.

Saalman, Howard. Haussmann: Paris Transformed. New York: George Braziller, 1971.

Schulz, Günther, and Andreas Matschenz. Stadtpläne von Berlin 1652 bis 1920. Berlin: Verlag Gebr. Mann, 2002.

Sutcliffe, Anthony. The Autumn of Central Paris: The Defeat of Town Planning, 1850-1970. McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1971.

Wilson, William H. The City Beautiful Movement. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

Wynn, Martin. “Barcelona: Planning and Change 1854-1977.” The Town Planning Review 50 (April 1979): 185-203.



Berlin Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt (Senate Department for Urban Development and Environment), “Stadtplanerische Konzepte (City Planning Concepts)”:

“From Barcino to BCN: The History of Barcelona.” Jaume Sobrequés, Director. Ajuntamente de Barcelona.

Museum of Modern Art. “Object: Photo – Modern Photographs 1909-1949, the Thomas Walther Collection.”

The World of the Habsburgs.