Outnumbered by the army and militia, Black Hawk’s group retreated north. For two difficult months they found refuge, but little sustenance, in a marsh north of Lake Koshkonong, west of Milwaukee. They began to starve, and were discovered and driven out by late July. Hundreds of exhausted refugees were slaughtered on August 2 as they sought to return across the Mississippi. Fewer than 200 survived the river crossing. Altogether more than 800 Sac lost their lives.