J. W. Noseworthy and his class at the Hollinger Mine

Canadianizing in a Mining Camp. J. W. Noseworthy and his class at the Hollinger Mine, 1914. Following p. 128 in Alfred Fitzpatrick, The University in Overalls: A Plea for Part-Time Study. Toronto: Frontier College Press, 1923.

A group of immigrant miners learns English in a “Frontier College” classroom. During the early 20th century, Canadian mining, timber, and railroad companies recruited thousands of young men from Europe to work as wage laborers. Living in remote work camps, workers endured difficult conditions and had little contact with mainstream Canadian society. The “Frontier College” was an effort to bring Canadian culture to these workers, teach them English, and discourage radicalism. Young Canadian men, like J.W. Noseworthy pictured here, lived and worked alongside immigrants, and during the evening offered classes and access to reading materials.

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