13 results for “Fort Mackinac (Mackinac Island, Mich.)”

Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island

Seth Eastman produced watercolor drawings to illustrate Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States (Philadelphia : Lippincott, Grambo & Company, (successors to Grigg, Elliot & Co.), 1853).

Creator
Eastman, Seth, 1808-1875
Date
1853
Subjects
Indians of North America
Places
Fort Mackinac (Mackinac Island, Mich.)
People
Eastman, Seth, 1808-1875
Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 1793-1864
Seven Days of the Life of a Soldier

Manuscript account by Major Alexander Thompson of a canoe journey from Green Bay to Mackinac Island, between June 1 and June 23, 1831. Accompanied by William Holiday, proprietor of an American Fur Company trading house in the interior, who was returning to headquarters in Mackinac to settle his accounts, and by eight French voyageurs or “pork-eaters,” Thompson left Green Bay on June 1, 1831 in a 30-foot bark canoe owned by the Company. As the travelers made their way around the Bay, he commented on the forests, wildlife, and the customs and legends of the Menomonee, Chippewa, Ottawa, and Winnebago Indians. Weather-bound by strong winds to their camp near Vermilion Island, Thompson hiked along some Indian trails, observing the abundant wild strawberries, roses, peas, grapes, currants, and gooseberries, and moccasin flowers, as well as bear, deer, bald eagle, and sturgeon. Strong winds were a constant hindrance throughout the trip, but finally, at Louse Island, they entered Lake Michigan, paddling at night in the moonlight to take advantage of the calm waters. They arrived at Mackinac Island on June 23rd, and were greeted by Company official Robert Stuart.

Creator
Thompson, Alexander Ramsay, 1793-1837
Date
1831
Subjects
American Fur Company
Canoes and canoeing
Fur trade
Indians of North America
Places
Great Lakes Region
Green Bay (Wis.)
Mackinac Island (Mich.)
People
Holiday, William
Thompson, Alexander Ramsay, 1793-1837
An Improved Edition of a Map of the Surveyed Part of the Territory of Michigan

John Farmer became the premier cartographer of Michigan in the early nineteenth century, publishing his first map of the state in 1826. In this map that Farmer published in English in 1835, he neglects Indian villages, unlike the 1834 version published in German, and also shows that an increasing part of the state has been covered by the rectangular land survey.

Creator
Farmer, John, 1798-1859
Date
1835?
Subjects
Mapping
Places
Mackinac Island (Mich.)
Michigan
Plan de Missilimakinak avec la description de la route du Missisipi

The upper right quadrant of the image details the Straits of Mackinac region, including the fort and Indian village at Saint Ignace and the fort established across the Straits at latter-day Mackinaw City; 16 lines of accompanying notes mention the presence of 600 coureurs de bois in 1716. On same sheet are maps of the Fort Chambly in Québec and Fort Frontenac (later the site of Kingston, Ontario).

Date
ca. 1717
Subjects
Empire
Indians of North America
Mapping
Places
Fort Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City, Mich.)
Fur trade contract, 1721

Signed contract, dated June 5, 1721 in Villemarie [Ile de Montréal, Québec], between Gilles Chauvin, Pierre Hubert Lacroix (and by proxy, Jacques Hubert Lacroix), associates of the Compagnies des Indes, and Pierre-Charles de Liette, in which the associates agree to provide de Liette with a canoe and guides for his journey from Montréal in exchange for two safe conduct passes. In the face of an impending investigation by the French government into the activities of the failing Compagnie des Indes, de Liette has resigned his commissions, and plans to leave Montréal. The commanding general has given him two passes which he signs over to Gilles Chauvin and Pierre Lacroix on the eve of their departure to the upper territories. In return, they agree to furnish de Liette with a canoe and four voyageur-guides as far as Fort Michilimackinac in Michigan, at which point de Liette will exchange canoes and receive two other guides to continue on to his final destination. De Liette is also obliged to see that the canoe and the guides are returned to Michilimakinac the following spring. The contract is signed by de Liette, Chauvin, Pierre Hubert Lacroix, local witnesses Théophile Barthe and Andre Dorien, and “notaire royal,” Jacques David.

Creator
Liette, Pierre de, d. 1721
Date
1721
Subjects
Canoes and canoeing
Compagnie des Indes
Fur trade
Places
Fort Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City, Mich.)
French Canada
Montréal (Québec)
Ville-Marie (Québec)
People
Chauvin, Gilles
Lacroix, Jacques Hubert
Lacroix, Pierre Hubert
Liette, Pierre de
Fur trade contract, 1692

Fur trade contract, dated Sept. 15, 1692 in Ville-Marie, Québec, concerning transport of merchandise to Michilimackinac and Chicago to be traded for beaver pelts. The contract describes an agreement between François Francoeur dit Lavalle—represented here by his wife Marie Magdeleine St.-Jean, authorized by him to conduct their joint business affairs while he was away “aux Illinois”—and four voyageurs: Simon Guillory, Jean Baptiste Jarry, Louis Roy, and by proxy, Simon Roy. For 500 livres each in beaver pelts, and their food, the voyageurs agreed to make the journey to Michilimackinac and “Chicagou” (one of the earliest references to Chicago in a voyageur contract) the following spring, in two canoes to be furnished by them, to transport merchandise, and to make the return with beaver pelts. At each of the trading centers, the four voyageurs have permission to use one of the canoes to trade 300 livres of merchandise each for personal profit. There are also provisions concerning voyageurs “hyvernants,” those who spend the winter out in trapping country in Illinois. The contract includes Francoeur's footnotes in margins, marked in the text with a sequence of carats and circles. Each addition is initialed by two or three of the parties involved, and the document is signed by St.-Jean and Guillory; the notary, Maugue; and witnesses Jean Legras and Adrien Betouni. Jarry and Roy did not sign, as they did not know how to write their names.

Creator
Francoeur, François
Guillory, Simon
Jarry, Jean Baptiste
Roy, Louis
Roy, Simon
St.-Jean, Marie Magdeleine
Date
1692
Subjects
Canoes and canoeing
Fur trade
Places
Chicago (Ill.)
Fort Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City, Mich.)
French Canada
Great Lakes
Québec
People
Francoeur dit Lavalle, François
Michigan Central Railroad Niagara Falls Route

The Michigan Central Railroad knit together an international Great Lakes region, connecting upper and lower Michigan to Chicago, Ontario, New York, and Boston. At Niagara Falls the Michigan Central carried passengers across a cantilevered bridge past a scenic gorge.

Date
1888
Subjects
Railroads
Hogan'-Lu'Ta (Red Fish), "Custer as a Comanche"

Undated painting on cardboard with an annotation, “Custer as a Comanche.” A similar painting (image #202) depicts “Custer as a White Man.”

Creator
Hogan'-Lu'Ta (Red Fish)
Date
n.d.
Subjects
Art
Indians of North America
People
Custer, George Armstrong, 1839-1876
Hogan'-Lu'Ta (Red Fish), "Custer as a White Man"

Painting on paper by the Native American artist Red Fish. The hand written caption, believed to be by Aaron McGaffey Beede who commissioned the work, reads “Custer as a white man/made by Red Fish/Indians believe Custer/has the “tonj” of an Indian.” The word “tonj” was usually translated as “spirit” in the 19th century, suggesting that Native Americans respected Custer as a fallen warrior. Another image by Red Fish (image #50) shows “Custer as a Comanche.”

Creator
Hogan'-Lu'Ta (Red Fish)
Date
n.d.
Subjects
Art
Indians of North America
People
Custer, George Armstrong, 1839-1876
The Massacre of United States Troops by the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians Near Fort Philip Kearney, Dakotah Territory, December 22nd, 1866

In 1866 U. S. soldiers sought to defend three recently built forts protecting the Bozeman Trail leading to the gold fields of Montana. Lieutenant Colonel W. J. Fetterman led eighty men against the Sioux, expecting an easy victory, and he and all his soldiers were killed. A peace treaty was concluded in 1868.

Date
January 19, 1867
Subjects
Cheyenne Indians
Indians of North America
Sioux
Places
Dakota Territory