Making History in Central North America

Based on the world-renowned collections of the Newberry Library in Chicago, “Frontier to Heartland” offers access to historical primary sources, scholarly perspectives on the past, and resources to help you use the site.


Essays with a point of view

In words and pictures Perspectives explain how central North America came to be known as a "frontier" and then a "heartland." You can trace the history of the region over 400 years, consider the cultural power of images, or learn how to read historic maps.


Thematic collections of images

Galleries are a quick way to view a range of themes in Frontier to Heartland.  Each gallery presents eight related images and links to the image collection.

Browse Archive

Mexican Vaquero

Remington, Frederic, 1861-1909
Dodge wrote, "The American cowboy has a Mexican cousin, the vaquero, who does cow-punching in Chihuahua, and raises horses for the Mexican cavalry and occasional shipment across the Rio Grande. The…

Farm residences in St. Clair County, Illinois

Representations of the farms of Ernst Dressel and Otto Schott, both in St. Clair County, Illinois, near East St. Louis, suggest subtle variations in the ways in which farmers sought to be represented…

The Capture of Batoche

Batoche in Saskatchewan was the capital of the Métis provisional government during the 1885 Riel Rebellion. The Canadian government defeated the rebellion in the Battle of Batoche.

Junior relocatees waiting to depart

Cover to International Socialist Review, November 1915

Published by Charles H. Kerr Co. from 1900 to 1918, the _International Socialist Review_ became the principal voice of the Socialist Party's left wing, utilizing the format of a mass circulation…

Hogan'-Lu'Ta (Red Fish), “Custer as a Comanche”

Hogan'-Lu'Ta (Red Fish)
Undated painting on cardboard with an annotation, "Custer as a Comanche." A similar painting (image #202) depicts "Custer as a White Man."

The Grand Council

Lewis, Henry, 1819-1904
American Indians gather along a river in conference. Artist Henry Lewis sketched and painted scenes along the upper Mississippi River between 1846 and 1848. He compiled them into a panoramic…

Charles A. Eastman at Knox College in 1880

Also known by his Dakota name Ohiyesa, Eastman grew up with his grandmother and uncle in Manitobabut became a Christian at his father's urging. He attended Knox and Dartmouth Colleges, and received a…
Four more random images