Territorial Conflict: Indian Nations and the United States
When Great Britain and the United States finally ratified a peace treaty in February 1815, it left North American international borders intact with the notable exception of the United States’ western frontier. Here, British leaders broke their promise to Native American nations to establish an independent Indian country in what is now the Midwest (Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin). The area was left to the United States, whose leaders wasted no time, as these letters show, in evolving plans to establish treaties with native nations in these territories. Tecumseh’s confederacy of Indian nations had collapsed with his death in 1813; Native Americans never again amassed the political or military unity to challenge for a separate Indian country in North America.