His Own Words

Black Hawk surrendered and was held captive at Fort Jefferson near St. Louis. The next spring American officials escorted him to Washington, D.C., to meet President Andrew Jackson, who like Black Hawk was an aging warrior born in 1767. Black Hawk was paraded through major Eastern cities in 1833 and American audiences treated him as a celebrity. After returning to Iowa he narrated his autobiography with the help of a translator, recounting his life and experiences for English-speaking readers.