abode - the house or place where one lives
absolute location - a unique or exact position on the Earth's surface; for example, a classroom number of home address are absolute locations; the latitude and longitude reference system on maps and globes gives an absolute location
anchorage - a sheltered place near a coast with sufficient depth of water and a sea bottom below that will hold an anchor securely, so that a ship may lie still in that location for an extended period of time; usually marked on charts with a symbol resembling an anchor
annotation - a critical or explanatory note added to a text
area - a portion of a space where a particular activity occurs
artemisia - a genus of herbs and shrubs with strong-smelling foliage
barter - the peaceful exchange, between individuals or communities, of a good or service in return for another good or service without monetary payments
basalt - a dense black or grey igneous rock
base line - An arbitrarily selected initial point determined by field survey along a parallel; also called a Geographer's line (as surveyors were known as geographers); township lines were established north and south of the base line
beach - a narrow strip of land that rises gradually from an adjacent body of water, usually consisting of sand and/or small stones
bird's eye view - a picture of a place or landscape drawn as it is seen from overhead
bluff - an abrupt rise in land with a flat or rounded top that runs for some distance; often found along the edge of a river valley
Boston Massacre - The killing of five Boston colonists by British soldiers who were being harassed by a crowd of Boston residents on March 5, 1770
Boston Tea Party - The raid on British ships carrying tea by a group of Boston residents dressed as Mohawk Indians protesting the tea tax that resulted in the throwing of 342 containers of tea into the harbor
boundary - the linear limit or edge of a territory such as a private piece of property, a county, state, or country
British colonial policy - the policies and practices by which the British government ruled the colonies. These changed drastically after 1763 when a period of 150 years of benign neglect was changed into a much more active, regulatory presence.
butte - a flat-topped landscape feature with steep sides that is surrounded on all sides by lower areas
camp - a place where people live temporarily in tents, cabins, or other inexpensive or portable dwellings
canal - an artificial (man-made) waterway built either to connect natural waterways or to make navigation possible on an existing waterway
canyon - a valley with exceptionally steep sides, usually carved by a fast-flowing river that may or may not still be in evidence
cardinal directions - as they appear on the compass, the four primary geographical directions (North, South, East and West)
cataract - a waterfall or rapid
central location - a location this advantageous for certain activities because it is located near the middle of an area where these activities are important
chart (navigational chart) - a map drawn for calculating or plotting the courses watercraft or aircraft
chasm - a deep cleft in the earth with steep sides, such as a canyon or gorge
chronometer - an extremely accurate clock that is relatively unaffected by movement or temperature changes
circulus equinoctialis -
city - a place where a large number of people live in close proximity to each other; more formally, a place incorporated as a city and therefore having specific political and administrative functions
claim - a geographically limited area in which a miner, prospector, or mining company has the exclusive right to mine; a claim may be leased or owned outright by the claimant
colonization - the act or process of establishing control over a country or area by a more powerful and often distant country
colony - a territory settled or conquered by a people from a distant land for the purpose of expanding cultural, economic, or political power
Columbian -
community - the people with common interests living in a particular area
compass - an instrument that allows comparison of one's direction of movement (or bearing) relative to the cardinal directions; magnetic compasses are sensitive to terrestrial magnetism, and therefore give bearings relative to magnetic north; a newer device, called the gyroscopic compass, is sensitive to the rotation of the earth, and therefore gives bearings relative to true north
compass rose - a design on a map, often done with decorations, to indicate the points of the compass
coniferous - cone-bearing
conquest - the process and result of a takeover-usually by force-of a large territory or country, and its inhabitants, by a powerful foreign people or army, leading to the establishment of a new government and/or society in the area
conservation - the protection of a natural resource, usually by planned management, to prevent its depletion or destruction
conservationist - someone who advocates the protection of a natural resource, usually by planned management, to prevent its depletion or destruction
constitution - written or unwritten system of principles that describe the fundamental legal and political structures of a political state
continent - one of the seven large land masses on Earth, surrounded, or mostly surrounded, by water
coordinates - a pair of numbers and/or letters that show the exact position of a point on a map or graph
country - a large territory having a distinctive culture or political system; most often thought of as the territory or an independent state or nation
creek - a natural stream, usually smaller than and tributary to a river
cultural features - landscape features that were created or shaped by humans; for example, buildings, roads, and canals
cultural geography - characteristics of the people in a location, such as language, predominant religion and ethnic/racial group(s), education, life style, architecture, foods, clothing, etc.
currier - a person who dresses and colors leather after it istanned
Dakota Territory - a political unit of the United States government by the federal government from 1863-89 and was divided into the states of North Dakota and South Dakota in 1889
deciduous - having leaves that fall seasonally
democracy - a form of government in which the citizens of a state vote directly on all governmental affairs or indirectly through democratically elected representatives
density - the number of items within a specific area or volume
dissent - the act of protesting
distance - the extent or account of space between two things, points, lines, etc.
distribution - an arrangement of values of a variable showing their observed or theoretical frequency of occurrence
drift mining - tunneling into the side of a hill where mineral deposits are in horizontal layers; a rough topography prevents surface mining
Eastern Orthodoxy (or Orthodox Church) - a main branch of Christianity, historically centered in Eastern Europe that does not recognize that primacy of the Pope in Rome
economic activity - the exchange of goods and services
economic models - models pertaining to the production, distribution, and use of income, wealth, and commodities. Usually developed to help explain the distribution of goods and services based on need versus proximity. For example, necessities, such as gasoline and food are closer to one's community, but services such as fire stations and banking serve a larger area, and hospitals service still a much larger area.
The Enlightenment - a philosophical movement of the eighteenth century that rejected traditional ideas and values, emphasized the notion of human progress, and promoted the use of reason and direct observation in science
environment - our surroundings: the air, water, plants, animals and the earth
environmental impact - the collective effects of a human activity or project on its surrounding area
environmental impact statement - a statement published by the people or groups responsible for a new activity or project that assesses the effects of that activity or project on its surrounding area
equator - an imaginary line drawn around the middle of the Earth an equal distance from the North Pole and the South Pole
equidistant azimuthal projection - a map projection in which all equal distances measured from a central point appear as equal distances on the map
ethnography - the study of the origin, characteristics, and distribution of different cultural and ethnic groups
expansion - the growth of something; in historical terms, the growth of the territorial extent, power, or influence of a state, culture, or idea
explorer - a person who seeks knowledge of unfamiliar, poorly known, or poorly understood regions, places, and phenomena
exposition - a collection of things for public display
eye-level view - a picture of a place or landscape drawn as it is seen from on the ground
falls - (as in Yosemite Falls) a waterfall; a portion of a river where water descends over a rock face or cliff
Five Civilized Tribes - Five Indian tribes or nations (the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles); that lived in the Southeastern United States until the 1820s, most of whom were removed to the Indian Territory from 1830-42; they were called "civilized" because most of them had set up formal governments before removal modeled after the U.S. government
flat - (as in Crane Flat) an area of land that is distinctively flat compared to surrounding mountainous or hilly terrain
foodstuffs - a raw material that can be transformed into food
forest - large area of land that is covered by trees and undergrowth
fork - location where two rivers of equal strength, width, and length join to form one river; neither is considered a tributary to the other
France - Western European nation that established colonies in the Americas
freeway (expressway) - a highway built to accommodate high-speed travel by automobiles, having at least two traffic lanes in each direction and having limited access to the highway via ramps; no toll is charged for the use of the highway
forced migration - a forced movement of large groups of people from homelands to new areas; movement of Native American to the Indian Territory was a forced migration established by law of the United States government; the movement of Africans to the Americas to be used as slaves was forced until a law in the U.S. forbade importation of humans for slave trade
fort - a secure structure or group of structures that houses a military unit; either provides protection for the surrounding area or provides a base for military operations
garrison - a small military force that permanently occupies and protects a fort or fortified city
generalization - the process of reducing the complexity of a feature on a map in order to make the feature and its relationship to other features more easily understood
girth - the distance around an object; circumference
globe - a three-dimensional spherical model of the earth and its surface
gold rush - a period of intense excitement after the discovery of gold in a particular region, during which an unusually large number of people settle into a region
graded roads - roads that have been smoothed, but not paved, in order the eliminate bumps and ruts and to improve drainage of the road
granite - a hard igneous rock consisting of clearly visible crystals of various minerals especially valued as building material
Greenwich Mean Time - the precisely measured time of day along the meridian of Greenwich, England, the generally accepted prime meridian
grid - a series of lines drawn on a map, usually crossing at right-angles, to help readers locate specific points on the map
grove - a group of similar trees growing in a confined area
guide meridians - placed every fourth range line to reduce the problem of unequal township dimensions as they converge poleward; along with standard parallels, they created "idealized" or "approximate" cells to account for the convergence of meridians at the North Pole, so townships were "approximately" 6 miles by six miles; see also township and range
guidebook - a book that provides essential information to travelers and migrants about an unfamiliar place, including information about travel routes and travel conditions, a general description of the place and its inhabitants, a listing of places to stay and eat, and information about essential services
gulch - a small, steep valley, usually occupied by a stream
gulf - a body of water existing within a large embayment of a continental coastline
harbor - a natural or man-made embayment of a large body of water that is a safe place for boats or ships to dock or rest while they are loaded or unloaded; good harbors are usually well-protected from strong winds and currents and are sufficiently deep to allow boats to safely approach landing sites, docks, or anchorage points
helianthi (helianthus) - a genus of tall-stemmed herbs having yellow or purple disk-shaped flowers (sunflowers are a species of helinanthus)
highway - a main road, especially between towns or cities
hills - landscapes features are moderately elevated in comparison to surrounding areas
historical atlas - a collection of maps that either shows a sequence of change, such as in an atlas of World War I which maps changing land occupation, or is a collection of many views of the same area at a particular time in history, such as a county atlas
hot springs - a source of water flowing that emerges onto the surface of the earth from underground that has been heated by contact with hot or molten rock while underground; often associated with areas of constant, but rarely violent, volcanic activity
human interaction with the environment - Geographic theme that examines how people interact with their natural surroundings
immigrant guide - a guidebook published for people moving into a new country or region providing essential information about the region
improved road - a road that has been graded and leveled so as to make a firm, level surface
Indian Territory - a large swath of U.S. federal territory on the Great Plains reserved for Indians from the 1830s to the 1880s; most of this eventually reserve became the states of Kansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma
interstate highway - a limited access superhighway (or expressway) constructed as part of a national system of such highways in order to provide for high-speed automobile travel between the states
inset map - a small map on the same sheet of paper as a larger map that provides additional information that cannot be shown conveniently on the larger map
Islam - a religion based on a belief in one god and the teaching of Muhammad
island - a body of land surrounded by water on all sides
key - an explanation of the symbols used in a map
lake - a large body of water surrounded by land, usually filled with fresh water
Lake Pontchartrain - Lake located in the New Orleans area of Lousiana
landscape - a collection of natural and cultural features that characterize a particular district or region; a portion of the earth's surface that can be taken in from a single viewpoint at ground level
large-scale map - a map that represents geographical features so that they appear large and detailed in comparison to other maps; usually used for maps of relatively small areas, such as cities and towns, or for plans of buildings
Latin Christendom - the term applied to the lands and peoples, primarily in Central, Western, and Southern Europe that practiced Roman Catholicism and ruled in religious matters by the Pope before the Protestant Reformation
latitude - the position north or south of the equator measured from 0° to 90°
legend - a table on a map, chart, or the like, listing and explaining the symbols used
The Levant - the countries bordering on the eastern Mediterranean Sea from Turkey to Egypt
levee - an embankment along the shore of a river, built for protection against floods; a natural levee is an embankment built by deposits of river sediment left during extraordinarily high floods; like artificial levees, these deposits restrain more typical floods
liberty - political independence; freedom of choice
location - a place, position, or site
lock - a large device that raises or lowers boats between water bodies that are at different levels
lode - an ore bearing a valuable metal or mineral; or a large deposit of this ore
lodge - a building, often in a resort or camp setting, providing sleeping accommodations, meeting rooms, and restaurants
long lot - an elongated, generally rectangular division of land or property commonly used to subdivide agricultural settlements in French colonies, particularly in North America; its shape insured that each farm in a particular district had direct access to a waterway or other transportation route
longitude - the position to the east or west of an imaginary line on the Earth's surface
Louisiana - Name for area claimed as French colony in present-day United States along Mississippi River and west to the Rocky Mountains, from the Gulf of Mexico to the current border with Canada. Named for King Louis XIV of France
lumber - the wood of trees cut and prepared for use, such as building material
magnetic north - the location of the northern pole of the Earth's magnetic field; the direction towards which a magnetic compass points from one's location
magnetic variation - the angular difference (expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds) between true north and magnetic north as measured by a magnetic compass at a particular location on the surface of the Earth; since magnetic north migrates slightly and compasses are often affected by local magnetic sources
Manifest Destiny - a political philosophy common among American statesman and business leaders in the nineteenth century that held that United States was destined to, or deserved to, conquer the heart of North America from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
map - a graphic representation that facilitates a spatial understanding of things, concepts, conditions, processes, or events in the human world
meadow - a grassy area; a treeless clearing within a forest or on a mountainside, or an area on a farm on which alfalfa (for hay) is grown
mercantilism - an economic and political philosophy that stresses the development and control of tradable goods (or commodities) as a means to foster the general good or wealth of a society or country
meridian - an imaginary north-south line on the face of the Earth identified or drawn on a map to indicate the relative location of all points along it in a east or west of a principal meridian
meteorology - the study of weather and its daily, seasonal, and annual patterns
metropolis - the capitol, the largest, or the most important city of a country, state, or area
migration - the movement of a group of people from one country or locality to another
militia - a group of civilians trained as soldiers who serve full time only in emergencies
mill - in mining, a structure containing machinery that crushes stone to facilitate the extraction of minerals from the stone
milling - in mining, the crushing of stone extracted from a mine to facilitate the removal of valuable minerals from it
mining - the process or business of extracting valuable or useful solid materials, such as minerals, metals, and coal from the earth
Mississippi River - The longest river in the United States. It has historically been a major transportation artery for goods and people. The name is Algonquin for "big river."
mode of transportation - the specific type of technology or vehicle involved in the movement or goods and passengers; for example, a railroad, automobile, or airplane
model - something built or drawn to show how something much larger would look
mountain - a landscape feature, often with a pointed or rugged top, the rises high above the surrounding area
mountain range - a land mass that projects well above its surroundings, (greater elevation than a hill), that is a series of ridges alike in form, direction, and origin
multicultural - strongly influenced by or having prominent characteristics of several cultural groups or peoples
Muslim - a follower of the religion of Islam
national park - an area of land set aside by an act of Congress because of its unique physical and/or cultural value to the nation as a whole; administered by the Department of Interior for public use
natural barrier - a obstruction, occurring in nature, such as a mountain range or a wide river that prevents or hinders movement over it or through it
natural features - landscape features that were created by natural processes; for example, rivers and mountains
naturalist - a person, often a scientist or writer, who studies and promotes nature
neat line - a line drawn around the edge of a map to separate the map image from marginal information, such as grid references and text
neoclassical - revival of classical style in literature, the arts, music, etc.
nonrenewable resources - a natural resource (such as mineral and oil deposits) that cannot be replenished or replaced by natural processes
Nouvelle Orleans (New Orleans) - The capital of the French colony of Louisiana and a major port city from colonial times to the present. Located on the Mississippi River just north of where the river empties into the Gulf of Mexico
ocean - the large body of salt water that covers most of the earth's surface, or any of the main divisions of the ocean, including the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic oceans
Oklahoma Country - the portion of Indian Territory opened to settlement by non-Indians in 1889
open cut or surface mining - the extraction of mineral deposits and ores by digging directly from the surface into mineral-bearing lodes or veins, creating an open pit; usually done when deposits are near the surface
ore - a type of rock bearing a valuable metal or mineral
orientation - the alignment of a map in relation to the cardinal directions; most typically, modern maps are oriented with North at the top, but any orientation (e.g., East, Northeast, South, etc.) is possible
Ottoman Turks - a particular group of Turkic peoples that established and ruled a powerful empire that dominated Southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and parts of North Africa from the late Middle Ages to the early twentieth century; the empire was dissolved as a result of World War I
pace - a rate of movement; in walking, one step
panhandle - a long narrow portion of a political unit shaped like the handle of a pan
pass - an area in a mountain range that is lower in elevation than surrounding areas, allowing passage from one side of the range to the other
pasture - a grassland which is used to provide food for domestic animals
pattern - a recognizable shape or arrangement of things
paved road - a road that has been covered with a hard surface such as stones, brick, tiles, concrete, or asphalt
peninsula - an area of land almost completely surrounded by water but connected to a larger piece of land
perspective - the process of viewing something from a distinct vantage point; or, the impression one has of an object or landscape from particular vantage point
physical geography - the study of the natural processes that shape the surface of the Earth and life on it; the characteristics of the natural features of some portion of the Earth's surface
pioneer - a person who is one of the first to enter and live in an area
placer mining - the mining (by panning or dredging) of alluvial (waterborne) or glacial deposits of precious metals or minerals, usually in stream beds or valleys adjacent to uplands rich in these minerals
plantation - a large farm employing many people to grow one or more crops for commercial sale or export
plot - to find a ship's actual or intended course or mark a fix on a chart
political - having to do with politics, that is, with the government, control, and/or leadership of human societies and territories
population density - the concentration of people within a specific portion of a defined area
population distribution - the pattern of the distribution of people over a defined area
portolan chart - a hand-drawn navigational chart made in Mediterranean ports and used by Mediterranean sailors from the thirteenth century to the seventeenth century and characterized by a grid of intersecting rhumblines (or loxodromes) and scalloped coastlines with the names of ports of landmarks and ports written at right angles to the coast
precipice - a high, sheer cliff
preservation - the protection of a natural environment, usually with only minimal human intervention, allowing it to evolve and function naturally
preservationist - someone who advocates the protection of a natural environment with minimal human intervention
primary economic activity - using natural resources: farming, fishing, lumbering, mining
principal meridian - a precisely measured north-south line on the face of the Earth from which all points located within a given geographical reference grid are located in the east-west direction; for example, the meridian of Greenwich, England from which all longitude is measured
projection - a method of representing the earth's three-dimensional surface as a flat two-dimensionalsurface
prospectus - a formal statement describing a proposed business or project
Ptolemaic - of or relating to Ptolemy
prospector - a person engaged in the process of exploring an area for minerals
pull factors - conditions in a location or region that encourage people to migrate to it
push factors - conditions in a location or region that encourage people to migrate from it
purshia tridentata - a species of shrub with small yellow flowers commonly found in dry areas of the western United States
push factors -
quadrant - a device for measuring the height of stars in the sky which was used in the past for calculatingdirections when travelling across the sea
railroad - a road bed consisting of parallel rails (usually made of metal) on which trains carrying passengers or freight can move from place to place
railroad network - the interconnections of the all of the railroads in a given area, taken together as a single unit
reclamation - the reconstruction of the landscape in which a mine operated in order to make it possible for the landscape to be once again safely used for other purposes
recreation - activities which are relaxing to humans or provide diversions from their normal routine
recreational attraction - a place people visit to participate in activities that are relaxing or diverting from normal routines, such as parks, museums, historic sites, and theaters
relationship - a way in which people and things are connected to each other
relative location - the location of a point expressed in relationship to the location of other points or in relation to a geographic reference system, such as the USPLS
Renaissance - a period of growth and activity in the areas of art, literature, and ideas in Europe during the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries
renewable resources - a natural resource (such as wood and water) that can be replenished or replaced by natural processes
reservation - an area set aside for specific type of land use or activity, or for use by a particular group of people
reservoir - a human-made body of water formed by damming one end of a valley; usually to supply water and/or hydroelectric power to a nearby area
residence - a house or other structure where people live
revolution - the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
river - a large natural body of water that flows for many miles
road - a human-made feature of the land that facilitates the movement of people and goods from one place to another
route - a well-established course of travel from one place or another; a highway
run - a small stream; creek
rural - living in or characteristic of farming or country life
scale - the ratio of the distance measured on a map to that measured on the ground between the same two points
sea - a large area of water, usually salt water, that is partly or completely surrounded by land
secondary economic activity - changing natural resources into new products: manufacturing, refining, etc.
section - one of 36 one-square mile portions of a township surveyed under the United States Public Land Survey (USPLS)
Sectionalism - a political philosophy, prominent in the United States in the decades before the Civil War that favored the needs and outlook of one's section of the country over the needs and outlook of the country as a whole
Sequoia - a species of conifers which grow in elevations of 1500 ft. - 7,000 ft. in particular regions along the west coast of North America; one species, the giant Sequoia, grows hundreds of feet high and can live to be thousands of years old; very resistant to diseases (usually only die from a natural hazard) and to fire, but fire is needed to disperse seeds
sextant - a instrument used to observe the angular distance of the Sun above the horizon
shaft - a vertical passageway in a mine that allows for ventilation and movement between the surface and the different levels of the mine
shipping company - a company that earns money by transporting goods from one place to another, usually over long distances
silk roads - ancient trade routes between China and the Mediterranean Sea
site and situation - These terms are often used together by geographers. Site refers to the advantages or disadvantages of a specific location for certain kinds of activities. Situation refers to the advantages or disadvantages of a site in relation to other locations and activities. For example, swampy ground is generally a poor site for building a city. A city that is conveniently located in relation to a major routes of travel may be said to have an advantageous situation.
small-scale map - a map that represents geographical features so that they appear small and less detailed in comparison to other maps; frequently used to show large features, such as countries and continents, so that they appear on a single sheet of paper
Sooner - a colloquial name for settler in the Oklahoma Country, so-called because they sometimes moved into the territory before it was officially opened for settlement
state - the government of a territory; a politically independent country or region; in some countries (such as the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Germany), a self-governing component of a federal nation
statistics - data that can be represented numerically
stewardship - taking responsibility for the survival and well-being of something that is valued, such as a natural resource
strait - a narrow area of water which joins two larger areas of water
strategic defense - the protection of a territory from perceived or real threats of invasion or conquest by the careful advance deployment of forces and/or weapons
street - a public thoroughfare, usually paved, in a village, town, or city, including the sidewalk or sidewalks
suburban - a residential district located on the outskirts of a city
summit - the top of a hill or mountain top; more generally, the highest point of any landscape feature
symbol - anything used to represent or stand for something else, such as a sign or mark
T-in-O map -
tanner - person who treat skins and hides with tannic acid so as to convert them into leather
tea tax - a three-penny per pound import tax on tea designed to improve the financial fortunes of the British East India Company and directly tax colonists. This tax led to protests by colonists including the Boston Tea Party.
terra incognita - an unknown or unexplored land, territory, or region
territory - an expanse of land
tertiary economic activity - services provided for others in exchange for money or product: banking, nursing, teaching
thematic map - is a type of map which shows a particular topic or theme, such as temperature
timetable - a printed brochure, book, or card consisting of tables that indicated the schedule times of arrival and departure at stations along one or more railroad routes
Trail of Tears - the usually forced migration of Indians from the homelands in the Southeastern United States to modern Oklahoma during the period 1830-42; more specifically, the forced migration of the Cherokee
transcontinental railroad - a railroad that crosses a continent or connects existing railroads so as to make a rail system that spans a continent; in the United States, the Transcontinental Railroad usually refers to the first such railroad built, by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroad companies, which was completed in 1869
transportation - the roads and equipment necessary for the movement of passengers or goods
true north - the location of the terrestrial north pole, the extreme northern end (on the surface of the earth) of the axis around which the world rotates; the direction of the north pole relative to one's location
timber - the wood from trees that is used for building
township and range - a system of land survey employed in most areas of the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains, in which a square 6 miles on a side is the basic unit, called a township; in the surveys (and in the identification of real estate within the township), each township is identified by its distance north or south of a carefully measured base line and its distance (or range) east or west of a carefully measured principal meridian; for example: Township 7 North, Range 13 East of the Third Principal Meridian
topographical map - a large-scale and detailed map that shows the most important physical features of a comparatively small portion of the earth's surface; usually depicts the heights of land features
trade - the exchange of goods or raw materials, either for money or for other goods or raw materials, by individuals, communities, companies, or countries
trail - a relatively smooth and clear pathway made by animals, humans, and/or vehicles; usually narrower and rougher than a road and made by frequent use rather than by mechanical grading and paving; in some instances, open only to foot or bicycle travel
tunnel - in mining, a horizontal passageway that provides access to the mine
underground or shaft mining - the extraction of mineral deposits and ores by tunneling or building vertical shafts into the ground to the location of the mineral-bearing lodes or veins; usually done when deposits are some distance from the surface, often to reduce the cost or environmental impact of digging open pits
United States Public Land Survey (USPLS) - a system established by the Land Ordinance of 1785 to survey and subdivide federal lands west of the Appalachian Mountains for subsequent sale or distribution to private or public landowners
urban - relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated area
valley - an elongated region or strip of land that is lower than surrounding areas; most often made by the erosive action of a river or glacier
values - the ideals, customs, institutions, etc., of a society toward which the people of the group have an affective regard
vein - an especially rich rock deposit of an ore bearing a valuable metal or mineral; usually thinner and smaller than a lode
view - an image or picture of a location or landscape from a height or distance, or drawn to look as if viewed from a height or distance (see also bird's-eye view)
vesicular trap rock - an igneous rock having many cavities (or vesicles)
volcanic rock - rock the originated as an emission from or as part of a volcano
voluntary migration - the unforced or free movement of large groups of people or individuals from their homelands to new areas
waterfall - cascade of water formed when a stream or river must cross a rocks and cliffs that have not yet been eroded away
waterway - a river, canal, or other body of water serving as aroute or way of travel or transport
winds - in navigational terminology, the directions or points of the compass, which historically were associated with the winds coming from specific directions
woodland - area of land on which many trees grow