Posts Tagged ‘Tribes’

Tribal Enrollment

Tribes have the right to determine their own membership. These criteria for enrollment vary from tribe to tribe. In the Midwest, the criteria are based on descendancy, that is, descent from an individual on a particular roll, as well as, in some cases, blood quantum and/or residency of the applicant or his/her parents. Most tribes [...]

Edmunds – Miami Recognition

Please close this window to return to previous page. There are many tribal communities left here in the Midwest, surprising numbers of tribal communities which are not in fact recognized by the federal government. Many of these people are the descendants of tribal people who remained when tribal, when other parts of the tribe were [...]

Low – Pokagon Recognition

Please close this window to return to previous page. The Pokagon Potawatomi Indians, I think, are a typical example of tribes that were historically recognized by the United States government and subsequently disenfranchised and denied their sovereign status. And that can be a very disastrous experience for a community because that tribal identity can be [...]

Edmunds – Treaty Research

Please close this window to return to previous page. The treaties are really interesting in that they are written on two or three levels. And when you initially read through treaties you can say in this treaty an Indian tribe has given up this amount of land and the federal government is going to supply [...]

Stereotypes

For centuries, Americans have regarded Native Americans as the “Other,” that is, fundamentally different from themselves. Majority Americans have viewed the Other (“Indians”) as lacking something, either in a good way or a bad way. Such a characterization of Indians is a stereotype. It does not represent the reality of Native American cultures and histories. [...]

How We Know

Scholars who have addressed the history of the repatriation movement focus on why Americans treated Native remains and objects the way they did. American collecting of these objects, they argue, should be understood as a form of “nation building,” in which Americans came to view the dead bodies of Indians as trophies. In Europe, displaying [...]

NAGPRA

NAGPRA (the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act) was passed on November 16, 1990. It defined ownership and provided for the return of Native American (including Hawaiian) human remains and objects from museums. It also established procedures for future acquisitions. Subsequently, human remains and certain objects could be claimed (or repatriated) by lineal descendants [...]

Legal Identity

Legal identity is established by the federal government and by tribal governments. If the federal government acknowledges that an individual is legally Indian, then that individual is entitled to certain benefits. These benefits follow from the government’s “trustee” responsibility to Indians as established by the Supreme Court. More importantly, Congress recognizes that it owes certain [...]

Sovereignty

By the 1930s, reform groups were criticizing Indian affairs policy by pointing to fiscal mismanagement and social injustice. In 1924, Congress had declared Indians to be citizens of the United States, yet they still were considered wards of the federal government and denied the right to vote in many states. The reform movement laid the [...]

Eras

About 2,200 years ago, a remarkable network of ceremonial centers containing mounds and earthworks began to develop where thousands of years before there had been small groups of big game hunters. At the ceremonial centers, rituals attracted people from many different ethnic groups. They created a network of multiethnic settlements and partnerships bolstered by gift [...]