Posts Tagged ‘Treaties’

Land, Water, and Forest

Throughout the Midwest region is a network of rivers and lakes that provided Native people with rich and varied sources for food, clothing, housing, and tools before and after Europeans arrived. Native people obtained many species of seasonally available fish, as well as an aquatic plant known as wild rice. The waters attracted game and [...]

Treaty Rights

In the aftermath of social changes generated by the Civil Rights movement in the United States, Native Americans were able to push more vigorously for redress of their grievances. One of the issues was the states’ violation of the treaty rights of Indians to hunt, fish and gather in the lands they ceded to the [...]

How We Know

The courts have relied on the work of scholars in deciding treaty rights cases such as those dealing with hunting and fishing. This is because scholars are trained to research and interpret the historical context in which treaties were negotiated and the perspective of Indian participants in treaty councils. For example, historian Helen Tanner did [...]

American Expansion

After the American Revolution, the U. S. began to sign treaties with Native groups, identified as Tribes, and increasingly tried to take on a dual role of protector and supervisor with sometimes disastrous results. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Indians still lived in villages where several Native groups, European traders, and mixed-ancestry [...]

Sovereignty

By the 1930s, reform groups were criticizing Indian affairs policy by pointing to fiscal mismanagement and social injustice. In 1924, Congress had declared Indians to be citizens of the United States, yet they still were considered wards of the federal government and denied the right to vote in many states. The reform movement laid the [...]

Eras

About 2,200 years ago, a remarkable network of ceremonial centers containing mounds and earthworks began to develop where thousands of years before there had been small groups of big game hunters. At the ceremonial centers, rituals attracted people from many different ethnic groups. They created a network of multiethnic settlements and partnerships bolstered by gift [...]

Treaties

The treaty relationship is the foundation or bedrock principle of U. S. law on Indian rights. A treaty actually is a contract between two sovereign nations. Treaties made between the United States and individual tribes had the same force of law as treaties with foreign nations. This concept is recognized in the U. S. Constitution [...]

The Homeland & Its Use

Today Native people in the Midwest hunt, fish, gather wild rice, and use products of the forest in ways that both reflect their histories and reinforce their identity as modern Native people. Sites for subsistence activity are scattered through the Midwest, and today Native people consider many of these to be sacred. After years of [...]

People, Places & Time

For thousands of years, the Midwest region has been home to indigenous peoples, many of whose descendants belong to Indian “tribes” today. Tribal groups came into being when the U. S. began to negotiate treaties with Native peoples in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Treaties were signed between “sovereign nations,” that is, the United [...]