Posts Tagged ‘Taxation’

Tribal Businesses

Tribally-owned businesses became fairly common after the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. The federal government encouraged, funded, and supervised cooperatives that sold wild rice or beadwork, for example, but these businesses were short-lived. During the War on Poverty in the 1960s and early 1970s, tribes could receive federal funds to establish “industrial parks” with water, [...]

Stereotypes

For centuries, Americans have regarded Native Americans as the “Other,” that is, fundamentally different from themselves. Majority Americans have viewed the Other (“Indians”) as lacking something, either in a good way or a bad way. Such a characterization of Indians is a stereotype. It does not represent the reality of Native American cultures and histories. [...]

How We Know

Native communities have integrated new technologies, wage work, literacy, Christianity, and other aspects of majority culture into their way of life. At the same time, cultural continuities have persisted for generations. Recent scholarship concentrates on explaining the survival of culturally distinct Indian communities, despite very severe federal assimilation policies directed at American Indians. Anthropologists especially [...]

Legal Identity

Legal identity is established by the federal government and by tribal governments. If the federal government acknowledges that an individual is legally Indian, then that individual is entitled to certain benefits. These benefits follow from the government’s “trustee” responsibility to Indians as established by the Supreme Court. More importantly, Congress recognizes that it owes certain [...]

Treaties Present

By the late 19th century, Indian political life focused on efforts to get the United States to fulfill treaty promises. Tribes petitioned Congress and the President for investigations of mismanagement of Indian resources and for redress for other treaty violations. Tribes sent delegations of leaders year after year to negotiate and lobby. And, as a [...]

American Expansion

After the American Revolution, the U. S. began to sign treaties with Native groups, identified as Tribes, and increasingly tried to take on a dual role of protector and supervisor with sometimes disastrous results. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Indians still lived in villages where several Native groups, European traders, and mixed-ancestry [...]

Sovereignty

By the 1930s, reform groups were criticizing Indian affairs policy by pointing to fiscal mismanagement and social injustice. In 1924, Congress had declared Indians to be citizens of the United States, yet they still were considered wards of the federal government and denied the right to vote in many states. The reform movement laid the [...]

Eras

About 2,200 years ago, a remarkable network of ceremonial centers containing mounds and earthworks began to develop where thousands of years before there had been small groups of big game hunters. At the ceremonial centers, rituals attracted people from many different ethnic groups. They created a network of multiethnic settlements and partnerships bolstered by gift [...]