Posts Tagged ‘Language’

How We Know

Native communities have integrated new technologies, wage work, literacy, Christianity, and other aspects of majority culture into their way of life. At the same time, cultural continuities have persisted for generations. Recent scholarship concentrates on explaining the survival of culturally distinct Indian communities, despite very severe federal assimilation policies directed at American Indians. Anthropologists especially [...]

Cultural Identity

In the Great Lakes area, the local groups have shared a regional culture and also developed variations on this culture. The principal theme of regional culture is reciprocity, the belief that it is necessary and morally right to give something to get something in return. This idea has been expressed in the value placed on [...]

Casinos

All the tribes in the Great Lakes area have casinos. Those in Minnesota are the third most profitable Indian casinos, behind Connecticut and California. But profits of these gaming operations vary from the tens of millions to about half a million dollars. Still, they have had a tremendous impact on the lives of Native people. [...]

American Expansion

After the American Revolution, the U. S. began to sign treaties with Native groups, identified as Tribes, and increasingly tried to take on a dual role of protector and supervisor with sometimes disastrous results. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Indians still lived in villages where several Native groups, European traders, and mixed-ancestry [...]

Sovereignty

By the 1930s, reform groups were criticizing Indian affairs policy by pointing to fiscal mismanagement and social injustice. In 1924, Congress had declared Indians to be citizens of the United States, yet they still were considered wards of the federal government and denied the right to vote in many states. The reform movement laid the [...]

How We Know

Historians and anthropologists (including archaeologists, ethnographers, and many linguists) have tried to describe and understand continuity and change in Native societies both prior to and after European arrival. In recent years, ethnographers, who conduct research in communities, have tried to explain how present-day innovations are related to long-held Native values and understandings as well as [...]