Posts Tagged ‘Land cession’

1851 Treaty

Please close this window to return to previous page. [Man speaking Dakota] Narrator: 1862. In the midst of the Civil War, newspapers north and south reported of a terrible Indian massacre in the remote state of Minnesota, of families, women and children, murdered in their homes. For years White settlers told stories of the “red [...]

Edmunds – Miami Recognition

Please close this window to return to previous page. There are many tribal communities left here in the Midwest, surprising numbers of tribal communities which are not in fact recognized by the federal government. Many of these people are the descendants of tribal people who remained when tribal, when other parts of the tribe were [...]

Edmunds – Treaty Research

Please close this window to return to previous page. The treaties are really interesting in that they are written on two or three levels. And when you initially read through treaties you can say in this treaty an Indian tribe has given up this amount of land and the federal government is going to supply [...]

Low – Pokagon Claims

Please close this window to return to previous page. The 1895 claim was essentially for annuities and other payments pursuant to land cession treaties that had been completed. In 1833, [and] was the last of the land cession treaties that the Pokagon Potawatomi signed. And there were monies to be paid, other benefits, education and [...]

Making Money

With the arrival of the French, Native people began to produce furs and hides for the international and regional markets. While the creation of social ties rather than the profit motive was initially at the forefront of Indian transactions, they soon became good at trade negotiations, playing the French and English off against one another [...]

How We Know

Why do non-Indian Americans think about Indians the way they do, and what are the consequences? Scholars have explored these questions by analyzing the images of “Indianness” used by Americans. From colonial times forward, “Indian” figures or characters appeared in visual form–paintings, photographs, cartoons, home furniture and accessories, pageants and public shows, advertisements, film, and [...]


For centuries, Americans have regarded Native Americans as the “Other,” that is, fundamentally different from themselves. Majority Americans have viewed the Other (“Indians”) as lacking something, either in a good way or a bad way. Such a characterization of Indians is a stereotype. It does not represent the reality of Native American cultures and histories. [...]

How We Know

Native communities have integrated new technologies, wage work, literacy, Christianity, and other aspects of majority culture into their way of life. At the same time, cultural continuities have persisted for generations. Recent scholarship concentrates on explaining the survival of culturally distinct Indian communities, despite very severe federal assimilation policies directed at American Indians. Anthropologists especially [...]

Treaties Present

By the late 19th century, Indian political life focused on efforts to get the United States to fulfill treaty promises. Tribes petitioned Congress and the President for investigations of mismanagement of Indian resources and for redress for other treaty violations. Tribes sent delegations of leaders year after year to negotiate and lobby. And, as a [...]

Treaties Past

The new United States government followed the British tradition in its relations with Indian Nations: treaties with Indians had the same force as with foreign nations and aboriginal title was recognized and land obtained through purchase. The 13 original states that formed a compact in 1781 signed treaties for peace and alliance. In 1789, the [...]