Posts Tagged ‘Hunting’

Making Money

With the arrival of the French, Native people began to produce furs and hides for the international and regional markets. While the creation of social ties rather than the profit motive was initially at the forefront of Indian transactions, they soon became good at trade negotiations, playing the French and English off against one another [...]


Providing meat for their families was primarily the job of men, although women sometimes hunted small animals. Hunting methods, based on extensive knowledge of the habits of game animals, included shooting with a bow and arrow or gun and setting various kinds of traps. Hunters had different arrows for different kinds of game: small ones [...]


For centuries, Americans have regarded Native Americans as the “Other,” that is, fundamentally different from themselves. Majority Americans have viewed the Other (“Indians”) as lacking something, either in a good way or a bad way. Such a characterization of Indians is a stereotype. It does not represent the reality of Native American cultures and histories. [...]


Native people in the Great Lakes area recognized individually-owned property. Women and men owned their own tools, clothing, ornaments, and any gifts of property they received. Ojibwa husbands and wives owned property separately but lent their possessions to each other. These ideas about gender and property contrasted with those in colonial and early 19th century [...]

How We Know

Native communities have integrated new technologies, wage work, literacy, Christianity, and other aspects of majority culture into their way of life. At the same time, cultural continuities have persisted for generations. Recent scholarship concentrates on explaining the survival of culturally distinct Indian communities, despite very severe federal assimilation policies directed at American Indians. Anthropologists especially [...]

Cultural Identity

In the Great Lakes area, the local groups have shared a regional culture and also developed variations on this culture. The principal theme of regional culture is reciprocity, the belief that it is necessary and morally right to give something to get something in return. This idea has been expressed in the value placed on [...]

Commercial Activity

From the mid-1600s to the early 1800s, Indians sold furs, labor, and goods to European traders throughout the Great Lakes region, while continuing to support their households by hunting, fishing, and gathering. The United States government pressured them to cede their land to settlers moving west. By the 1830s and 1840s, almost all the Indians [...]

Land, Water, and Forest

Throughout the Midwest region is a network of rivers and lakes that provided Native people with rich and varied sources for food, clothing, housing, and tools before and after Europeans arrived. Native people obtained many species of seasonally available fish, as well as an aquatic plant known as wild rice. The waters attracted game and [...]

Treaty Rights

In the aftermath of social changes generated by the Civil Rights movement in the United States, Native Americans were able to push more vigorously for redress of their grievances. One of the issues was the states’ violation of the treaty rights of Indians to hunt, fish and gather in the lands they ceded to the [...]

How We Know

The courts have relied on the work of scholars in deciding treaty rights cases such as those dealing with hunting and fishing. This is because scholars are trained to research and interpret the historical context in which treaties were negotiated and the perspective of Indian participants in treaty councils. For example, historian Helen Tanner did [...]