Posts Tagged ‘Food’

1851 Treaty

Please close this window to return to previous page. [Man speaking Dakota] Narrator: 1862. In the midst of the Civil War, newspapers north and south reported of a terrible Indian massacre in the remote state of Minnesota, of families, women and children, murdered in their homes. For years White settlers told stories of the “red [...]

Nesper – Cultural Change Research

Please close this window to return to previous page. Ojibwa people stipulated for the right to continue to hunt, fish, and gather on their traditional territories when they ceded land to the United States. Those rights were exercised for a period of time in the middle of the 19th century and the State of Wisconsin [...]

Potawatomi Powwow

Please close this window to return to previous page. Greg Ballew, Pokagon Potawatomi, White Thunder Singers: Powwows aren’t just a social gathering, though they are that, too, but there [are] also spiritual issues involved. So at certain times of the year they would hold gatherings—spring, fall, harvest gatherings. This is basically what our powwow traditionally [...]

Making Money

With the arrival of the French, Native people began to produce furs and hides for the international and regional markets. While the creation of social ties rather than the profit motive was initially at the forefront of Indian transactions, they soon became good at trade negotiations, playing the French and English off against one another [...]

Treaties Past

The new United States government followed the British tradition in its relations with Indian Nations: treaties with Indians had the same force as with foreign nations and aboriginal title was recognized and land obtained through purchase. The 13 original states that formed a compact in 1781 signed treaties for peace and alliance. In 1789, the [...]

Treaty Rights

In the aftermath of social changes generated by the Civil Rights movement in the United States, Native Americans were able to push more vigorously for redress of their grievances. One of the issues was the states’ violation of the treaty rights of Indians to hunt, fish and gather in the lands they ceded to the [...]


Ceremonial centers built by American Indians from about 2,200 to 1,600 years ago existed in what is now Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, as well as elsewhere. The people who built these centers had previously lived more simply as hunters and fisherman and some had begun to domesticate native plants, such as goosefoot, [...]