Posts Tagged ‘Cultural identity’

How We Know

Native communities have integrated new technologies, wage work, literacy, Christianity, and other aspects of majority culture into their way of life. At the same time, cultural continuities have persisted for generations. Recent scholarship concentrates on explaining the survival of culturally distinct Indian communities, despite very severe federal assimilation policies directed at American Indians. Anthropologists especially [...]

Cultural Identity

In the Great Lakes area, the local groups have shared a regional culture and also developed variations on this culture. The principal theme of regional culture is reciprocity, the belief that it is necessary and morally right to give something to get something in return. This idea has been expressed in the value placed on [...]

How We Know

Scholars are interested in many issues related to treaties, including the ways treaties are interpreted, the role treaties have played in U. S. history, and the evolution of the treaty rights movement. Anthropologists who study language and culture have tried to understand what the treaty councils meant to Indians at the time the councils were [...]

How We Know

To understand the place of Native people in the regional economy today, scholars take a long-term or historical approach. Before the American era, Native people worked for wages and produced goods for the market, playing a vital part in the Great Lakes economy. LISTEN TO HISTORIAN DAVE EDMUNDS DISCUSS POTAWATOMI ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE 1840s. Help [...]

Casinos

All the tribes in the Great Lakes area have casinos. Those in Minnesota are the third most profitable Indian casinos, behind Connecticut and California. But profits of these gaming operations vary from the tens of millions to about half a million dollars. Still, they have had a tremendous impact on the lives of Native people. [...]

Land, Water, and Forest

Throughout the Midwest region is a network of rivers and lakes that provided Native people with rich and varied sources for food, clothing, housing, and tools before and after Europeans arrived. Native people obtained many species of seasonally available fish, as well as an aquatic plant known as wild rice. The waters attracted game and [...]

Treaty Rights

In the aftermath of social changes generated by the Civil Rights movement in the United States, Native Americans were able to push more vigorously for redress of their grievances. One of the issues was the states’ violation of the treaty rights of Indians to hunt, fish and gather in the lands they ceded to the [...]

American Expansion

After the American Revolution, the U. S. began to sign treaties with Native groups, identified as Tribes, and increasingly tried to take on a dual role of protector and supervisor with sometimes disastrous results. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Indians still lived in villages where several Native groups, European traders, and mixed-ancestry [...]

Sovereignty

By the 1930s, reform groups were criticizing Indian affairs policy by pointing to fiscal mismanagement and social injustice. In 1924, Congress had declared Indians to be citizens of the United States, yet they still were considered wards of the federal government and denied the right to vote in many states. The reform movement laid the [...]

Eras

About 2,200 years ago, a remarkable network of ceremonial centers containing mounds and earthworks began to develop where thousands of years before there had been small groups of big game hunters. At the ceremonial centers, rituals attracted people from many different ethnic groups. They created a network of multiethnic settlements and partnerships bolstered by gift [...]