Posts Tagged ‘Court cases’

How We Know

Native communities have integrated new technologies, wage work, literacy, Christianity, and other aspects of majority culture into their way of life. At the same time, cultural continuities have persisted for generations. Recent scholarship concentrates on explaining the survival of culturally distinct Indian communities, despite very severe federal assimilation policies directed at American Indians. Anthropologists especially [...]

Legal Identity

Legal identity is established by the federal government and by tribal governments. If the federal government acknowledges that an individual is legally Indian, then that individual is entitled to certain benefits. These benefits follow from the government’s “trustee” responsibility to Indians as established by the Supreme Court. More importantly, Congress recognizes that it owes certain [...]

How We Know

Scholars are interested in many issues related to treaties, including the ways treaties are interpreted, the role treaties have played in U. S. history, and the evolution of the treaty rights movement. Anthropologists who study language and culture have tried to understand what the treaty councils meant to Indians at the time the councils were [...]

Treaties Present

By the late 19th century, Indian political life focused on efforts to get the United States to fulfill treaty promises. Tribes petitioned Congress and the President for investigations of mismanagement of Indian resources and for redress for other treaty violations. Tribes sent delegations of leaders year after year to negotiate and lobby. And, as a [...]

Treaties Past

The new United States government followed the British tradition in its relations with Indian Nations: treaties with Indians had the same force as with foreign nations and aboriginal title was recognized and land obtained through purchase. The 13 original states that formed a compact in 1781 signed treaties for peace and alliance. In 1789, the [...]

Casinos

All the tribes in the Great Lakes area have casinos. Those in Minnesota are the third most profitable Indian casinos, behind Connecticut and California. But profits of these gaming operations vary from the tens of millions to about half a million dollars. Still, they have had a tremendous impact on the lives of Native people. [...]

Treaty Rights

In the aftermath of social changes generated by the Civil Rights movement in the United States, Native Americans were able to push more vigorously for redress of their grievances. One of the issues was the states’ violation of the treaty rights of Indians to hunt, fish and gather in the lands they ceded to the [...]

How We Know

The courts have relied on the work of scholars in deciding treaty rights cases such as those dealing with hunting and fishing. This is because scholars are trained to research and interpret the historical context in which treaties were negotiated and the perspective of Indian participants in treaty councils. For example, historian Helen Tanner did [...]

American Expansion

After the American Revolution, the U. S. began to sign treaties with Native groups, identified as Tribes, and increasingly tried to take on a dual role of protector and supervisor with sometimes disastrous results. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Indians still lived in villages where several Native groups, European traders, and mixed-ancestry [...]

Sovereignty

By the 1930s, reform groups were criticizing Indian affairs policy by pointing to fiscal mismanagement and social injustice. In 1924, Congress had declared Indians to be citizens of the United States, yet they still were considered wards of the federal government and denied the right to vote in many states. The reform movement laid the [...]