Posts Tagged ‘Children’

Wild Rice

Wild rice is a cereal native to North America. It has a greater nutritional value than wheat or oats and was harvested extensively in Wisconsin, Minnesota, parts of Michigan and northern Ohio, Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. Today, the range is more restricted. The plant is a grass that grows in fresh or brachial water from [...]

Challenging Stereotypes

The misleading stereotypes in Indian imagery did not go unchallenged by Native people in the Midwest. The Chicago Exposition in 1893, which attempted to bolster the image of the United States as a progressive, industrial society by contrasting a “civilized” America with the “primitive” non-Western world, received a critique from Simon Pokagon (1830-99), a Potawatomi [...]

Stereotypes

For centuries, Americans have regarded Native Americans as the “Other,” that is, fundamentally different from themselves. Majority Americans have viewed the Other (“Indians”) as lacking something, either in a good way or a bad way. Such a characterization of Indians is a stereotype. It does not represent the reality of Native American cultures and histories. [...]

How We Know

Scholars who have addressed the history of the repatriation movement focus on why Americans treated Native remains and objects the way they did. American collecting of these objects, they argue, should be understood as a form of “nation building,” in which Americans came to view the dead bodies of Indians as trophies. In Europe, displaying [...]

Ownership

Native people in the Great Lakes area recognized individually-owned property. Women and men owned their own tools, clothing, ornaments, and any gifts of property they received. Ojibwa husbands and wives owned property separately but lent their possessions to each other. These ideas about gender and property contrasted with those in colonial and early 19th century [...]

Sovereignty

By the 1930s, reform groups were criticizing Indian affairs policy by pointing to fiscal mismanagement and social injustice. In 1924, Congress had declared Indians to be citizens of the United States, yet they still were considered wards of the federal government and denied the right to vote in many states. The reform movement laid the [...]

How We Know

Historians and anthropologists (including archaeologists, ethnographers, and many linguists) have tried to describe and understand continuity and change in Native societies both prior to and after European arrival. In recent years, ethnographers, who conduct research in communities, have tried to explain how present-day innovations are related to long-held Native values and understandings as well as [...]

Indian Perspectives

This site highlights published research by both Native and non-Native scholars. But Native people without academic standing as professional historians also have reflected on and told their own history and they continue to do so in oral history; memoirs; newspaper articles; novels, short stories, plays, and poetry; and more. What do Native people in the [...]