Posts Tagged ‘Casinos’

Ho-Chunk Mounds

Please close this window to return to previous page. Narrator: The Ho-Chunk, now known as the Winnebago, have recently been making moves to reclaim their heritage along this stretch of the river. Jim Funmaker, Ho-Chunk (Winnebago): This was the traveling place for people that traveled along this Wisconsin River. They camped here and all that. [...]

Tribal Businesses

Tribally-owned businesses became fairly common after the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. The federal government encouraged, funded, and supervised cooperatives that sold wild rice or beadwork, for example, but these businesses were short-lived. During the War on Poverty in the 1960s and early 1970s, tribes could receive federal funds to establish “industrial parks” with water, [...]

How We Know

Why do non-Indian Americans think about Indians the way they do, and what are the consequences? Scholars have explored these questions by analyzing the images of “Indianness” used by Americans. From colonial times forward, “Indian” figures or characters appeared in visual form–paintings, photographs, cartoons, home furniture and accessories, pageants and public shows, advertisements, film, and [...]

Challenging Stereotypes

The misleading stereotypes in Indian imagery did not go unchallenged by Native people in the Midwest. The Chicago Exposition in 1893, which attempted to bolster the image of the United States as a progressive, industrial society by contrasting a “civilized” America with the “primitive” non-Western world, received a critique from Simon Pokagon (1830-99), a Potawatomi [...]

Stereotypes

For centuries, Americans have regarded Native Americans as the “Other,” that is, fundamentally different from themselves. Majority Americans have viewed the Other (“Indians”) as lacking something, either in a good way or a bad way. Such a characterization of Indians is a stereotype. It does not represent the reality of Native American cultures and histories. [...]

How We Know

Native communities have integrated new technologies, wage work, literacy, Christianity, and other aspects of majority culture into their way of life. At the same time, cultural continuities have persisted for generations. Recent scholarship concentrates on explaining the survival of culturally distinct Indian communities, despite very severe federal assimilation policies directed at American Indians. Anthropologists especially [...]

Legal Identity

Legal identity is established by the federal government and by tribal governments. If the federal government acknowledges that an individual is legally Indian, then that individual is entitled to certain benefits. These benefits follow from the government’s “trustee” responsibility to Indians as established by the Supreme Court. More importantly, Congress recognizes that it owes certain [...]

Commercial Activity

From the mid-1600s to the early 1800s, Indians sold furs, labor, and goods to European traders throughout the Great Lakes region, while continuing to support their households by hunting, fishing, and gathering. The United States government pressured them to cede their land to settlers moving west. By the 1830s and 1840s, almost all the Indians [...]

Casinos

All the tribes in the Great Lakes area have casinos. Those in Minnesota are the third most profitable Indian casinos, behind Connecticut and California. But profits of these gaming operations vary from the tens of millions to about half a million dollars. Still, they have had a tremendous impact on the lives of Native people. [...]

Sovereignty

By the 1930s, reform groups were criticizing Indian affairs policy by pointing to fiscal mismanagement and social injustice. In 1924, Congress had declared Indians to be citizens of the United States, yet they still were considered wards of the federal government and denied the right to vote in many states. The reform movement laid the [...]