25 results for “Labor unions”

Haymarket Monument, Waldheim Cemetery

A monument to four anarchist labor leaders executed in Chicago on November 11, 1887. After a trial that is generally considered a miscarriage of justice, the men were convicted of killing police with a bomb. The words at the base of the statue are those of Albert Parsons, “The day will come when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you are throttling today.” Other important labor and radical leaders, including Emma Goldman, chose to be buried near this monument.

Creator
Weinert, Albert
Subjects
Anarchism
Labor unions
Radicalism
Visions of history
Places
Chicago, Illinois
Joe Hill's Funeral

In November 1915, thousands attended the Chicago funeral of songwriter Joe Hill, who was executed by firing squad in a Utah prison. According to his supporters in the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), Hill was falsely convicted of murder. The Swedish immigrant was best known for songs such as The Rebel Girl and The Preacher and the Slave, which gave new political lyrics to popular or traditional tunes.

Date
January 1916
Subjects
Immigration
Industrial Workers of the World
Labor unions
Places
Chicago (Ill.)
People
Hill, Joe
Cover to _International Socialist Review_, November 1915

Published by Charles H. Kerr Co. from 1900 to 1918, the International Socialist Review became the principal voice of the Socialist Party's left wing, utilizing the format of a mass circulation magazine.

Date
February 1916
Subjects
Labor unions
Socialism
Strikes
Working class
Labor rally poster, Du Sable High School

Unionization will advance the cause of all African Americans. So said Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) leader A. Philip Randolph at Du Sable High School in 1937, according to the Pullman Company informant who attended the meeting. Chicago's Pullman Company was a major employer of African Americans and enjoyed a reputation for paternalism toward its workers, providing good wages and an Employee Representation Plan that the company promoted as an alternative to independent unions. Beginning in the mid-1920s the BSCP worked to unionize the porters and maids working in Pullman's sleeping cars. Like other Chicago companies, Pullman maintained an extensive network of informants who infiltrated unions and reported back to management (see image #121).

Date
May 9, 1937
Subjects
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
Labor unions
Pullman Company
Places
Chicago (Ill.)
People
Randolph, A. Phillip
Report from M. Butler to E.M. Graham, May 11, 1937

The report of an undercover agent to the Pullman Company. Since the late 19th century, the Pullman Company employed African Americans as service workers on its sleeping cars. By the 1920s it was one of the largest industrial employers of African American workers, enjoying a reputation for paternalism. Beginning in the mid-1920s the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) under the leadership of A. Philip Randolph sought to unionize the porters and maids of the Pullman Company. Like other industrial employers, Pullman maintained an extensive network of informants who infiltrated unions and reported back to management.

Date
May 11, 1937
Subjects
African Americans
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
Unions
Working class
Places
Pullman (Chicago, Ill.)
Scene of Destruction and Pillage in the Panhandle Yards

Chicago was relatively peaceful during the early weeks of the American Railway Union's boycott of Pullman sleeping cars. Major violence erupted only after a federal court ordered the arrest of Eugene Debs and other union leaders on charges that they had violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Ironically, the law was intended to limit the power of large corporations. When federal troops arrived in early July to enforce the court's order, several working-class neighborhoods erupted in violence. Soon after, the boycott was crushed. This clipping from the Chicago Herald recounts the turmoil as workers, especially women, took to the streets to prevent trains from leaving the stockyards.

Date
July 8, 1894
Subjects
American Railway Union
Boycotts
Labor
Pullman Strike, 1894
Strikes and lockouts
Places
Chicago (Ill.)
Pullman (Chicago, Ill.)
Chicago Under the Mob

When Frederic Remington wrote and illustrated this article about labor unrest in Chicago he was already a well-known for his images of western themes. The text describes Chicago's immigrant workers as an uncivilized and violent mob. The troops sent to restore order, Remington points out, had recently participated in the massacre of Native Americans at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

Creator
Remington, Frederic, 1861-1909
Date
1895
Subjects
Labor
Pullman Company
Pullman Strike, 1894
Working class
Places
Chicago (Ill.)
Cleaning the Vista Dome Car

A worker empties trash from a rail road dining car, 1949. Two workers are visible inside the car. Most railroad work was racially segregated into the 1950s with African Americans largely restricted to service jobs such as porters, cooks, and cleaners.

Creator
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company
Date
ca. 1949
Subjects
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company
Labor
Railroads
Places
Chicago (Ill.)
Chicago's Interracial Debating Classic, January 25, 1931

Before the advent of television, lectures and debates provided public entertainment. Social activists used these venues to present their ideas and to educate their constituencies. This flyer promotes a debate involving A. Philip Randolph and Chandler Owen, both leaders of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP), as optimists, and Ben Reitman and David Tullman, both white radicals associated with the Dill Pickle Club, as pessimists. Although the exact topic of the debate is unclear, both sides supported unionization as well as racial integration. In 1931, the BSCP was engaged in a campaign to gain formal recognition as the union of African American porters and maids who worked on Pullman sleeping cars.

Date
1931
Subjects
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
Dill Pickle Club
Education
Labor
Places
Chicago (Ill.)
People
Randolph, A. Phillip
Reitman, Ben
Cleaning the "Vistadome" Car

Railroad work in the U.S. was segregated by race well into the 1950s. African Americans held jobs for car cleaners, maids, and porters, but rarely worked as conductors or engineers. Here an African American woman cleans the interior of the Chicago, Burlington, & Quincy “Vistadome” car.

Creator
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company
Date
ca. 1949
Subjects
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company
Labor
Railroads
Places
Chicago (Ill.)