16 results for “Immigration”

Attention Workingmen! Achtung Arbeiter!

This bilingual broadside advertised a meeting in Chicago's Haymarket Square in 1886. An explosion near the end of the rally resulted in at least eleven deaths and dozens of injuries. Though the person responsible for the bombing was never known, eight anarchists were arrested and put on trial. The purpose of the meeting was to protest a conflict at the McCormick Reaper Works a day earlier in which police shot and killed six workers.

Date
1886
Subjects
Anarchism
Haymarket Square Riot, 1886
Immigration
Working class
Homesteads and Pre-Emptions

During the late 19th century the U.S. government aided settlement of farm farmers on the Great Plains by offering land at very low prices to those who would establish farms. As this description of the process indicates, immigrants seeking homestead land were required to declared their intention to become American citizen. For European immigrants this was a very small barrier.

Date
1872
Subjects
Agriculture
Immigration
Railroads
Places
Great Plains
Kansas
Nebraska
Canadiska Västern: den Sista Bästa Västern

A young man wipes his brow as if resting from hard work. In the background, symbols of agriculture and industry stretch out toward a distant mountain range. During the early 20th century, the government of Canada advertised in many countries of Europe hoping to recruit settlers to farm the prairie provinces, and work in its growing industries. The recruitment campaign helped to bring over 1.5 million immigrants to Canada during the first decade of the century.

Creator
Canada. Department of Interior.
Date
1910
Subjects
Agriculture
Immigration
Places
Canada
Portrait of Jack Jones, 1919

A portrait of Jack Jones by Polish immigrant artist Stanislaus Szukalski. A Canadian by birth, and a one-time labor organizer, Jones managed the Dill Pickle Club in Chicago from 1914 to 1931. His friend and collaborator Szukalski, who maintained a studio nearby, was a modernist painter and sculptor and part of the city's bohemian cultural scene. The portrait appeared in an article about Jones by the novelist Sherwood Anderson (image #137).

Creator
Szukalski, Stanislaus
Date
1919
Subjects
Amusements
Dill Pickle Club
Immigration
Places
Chicago (Ill.)
English lessons

Finnish-speaking lumber workers in Duluth, Minnesota, learn English through a class in parliamentary procedure. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries tens of millions of farmers and workers from Europe, Asia, and Latin America moved to North America in search of work. Although anti-immigrant sentiment, and sometimes violence, was common in the U.S. and Canada, governments and private agencies also tried to teach immigrants the culture and language of their adopted land. In some cases, immigrants eagerly participated in these “Americanization” and Canadianization” programs, especially when immigrants considered the programs helpful to their own goals. But in other cases, immigrants rejected and resented forced conformity.

Date
1930s
Subjects
Education
Immigration
Places
Minnesota
Karte von Michigan

John Farmer became the premier cartographer of Michigan in the early nineteenth century, publishing his first map of the state in 1826. This 1834 map, published in German, indicates the location of a number of Native American settlements. Maps like this would have been used by prospective settlers hoping to identify suitable land in the territory.

Creator
Farmer, John, 1798-1859
Date
1834
Subjects
Immigration
Indians of North America
Mapping
Places
Michigan
Joe Hill's Funeral

In November 1915, thousands attended the Chicago funeral of songwriter Joe Hill, who was executed by firing squad in a Utah prison. According to his supporters in the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), Hill was falsely convicted of murder. The Swedish immigrant was best known for songs such as The Rebel Girl and The Preacher and the Slave, which gave new political lyrics to popular or traditional tunes.

Date
January 1916
Subjects
Immigration
Industrial Workers of the World
Labor unions
Places
Chicago (Ill.)
People
Hill, Joe
Ukrainian-Canadian Festival, Saskatoon

A man and woman in traditional dress dance atop a map of Canada. As part of its plan to populate the western provinces the Canadian government encouraged immigration from many European countries. Before World War I cut off trans-Atlantic migration, more than 150,000 Ukrainians had settled in Canada, many of them in the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. Thousands more arrived in the 1920s. Non-British immigrants often experienced discrimination at the hands of native-born Canadians, and were encouraged to abandon their language and traditional clothes. During World War I, thousands of Ukrainians were imprisoned because they were originally from Canada’s enemy, the Austrian Empire. By the late 1940s, some of the prejudice had tempered as immigrants and their children claimed the right to be Canadians and immigrants.

Creator
Association of Ukrainian Canadians
Date
July 31, 1946
Subjects
Dancers
Immigration
Places
Saskatchewan
Cheap Farms for Settlers

A broadside advertising land for sale in western Iowa. In addition to selling farm land, the American Emigrant Company recruited European workers and farmers to migrate to the western United States, arranged their travel and work contracts, and handled money sent home by immigrants. Prominent business and political leaders were major investors in the company.

Date
1865
Subjects
Advertisements
Education
Farming
Immigration
Railroads
Places
Iowa
J. W. Noseworthy and his class at the Hollinger Mine

A group of immigrant miners learns English in a “Frontier College” classroom. During the early 20th century, Canadian mining, timber, and railroad companies recruited thousands of young men from Europe to work as wage laborers. Living in remote work camps, workers endured difficult conditions and had little contact with mainstream Canadian society. The “Frontier College” was an effort to bring Canadian culture to these workers, teach them English, and discourage radicalism. Young Canadian men, like J.W. Noseworthy pictured here, lived and worked alongside immigrants, and during the evening offered classes and access to reading materials.

Date
1914
Subjects
Education
Immigration
Places
Canada
Ontario