Tag Archives: political pamphlets

The magic lantern, la rareté merveilluse, fraai curieus!

Savoiardi colla Lanterna Magica, held by the British Museum (1890,0415.254)

If the language of cinema is universal, then one may say the same of the magic lantern show. The magic lantern, an early type of image projector, was a precursor to motion picture film projectors. Traveling magic lantern performers of the 18th and 19th centuries, also sometimes known as “Savoyards”, were a common sight in European cities. Often accompanied by an assistant who performed live music during the show, these performers projected hand-painted slides of popular tales in the darkened rooms of private homes using techniques borrowed from magic, pupeteering, and the theater.

One could also argue that political satire is universal. Both visual artists and pamphleteers of the 18th century co-opted the image of the magic lantern in acerbic works that satirized contemporary politics and culture. These often anonymous artists and authors acted, in a sense, as magic lantern projectionists and became the lens through which politics and society were examined and critiqued.

La Lanterne magique patriotique (Case FRC 17560)

Several pamphlets in the Newberry Library‘s French pamphlet collections are satires which build upon the theme and aesthetic of the magic lantern. One such example in the French Revolution Collection is La Lanterne magique patriotique, ou, Le Coup de grace de l’aristocratie by Antoine Dorfeuille (Case FRC 17560). Dorfeuille was a comedic actor, dramaturge, and revolutionary who was killed during counter-revolutionary violence in 1795 in the wake of the Reign of Terror. In this satire of the French aristocracy, Dorfeuille co-opts the language of the magic lantern showman to humorous effect.

Woodcut from La Lanterne magique patriotique (Case FRC 17560)

Included in this pamphlet is a crude woodcut of a magic lantern projecting an image of Lady Liberty. An English translation of the caption below the woodcut follows:

[Frenchmen, it's Lady Liberty!

"The print is very bad," the aristocracy will say;

"Yes, but the idea is good," Reason will say.]

Pasted in at p. 24 of this pamphlet is an expanded, alternate version of the text printed below it on Louis XVI and the aristocracy. This text pleads for the king to ignore the counsel of the coterie of aristocrats and diplomats, sometimes derisively called the comité autrichien (“Austrian Committee”), who surrounded him at court and harbored royalists sympathies that ran counter to many of the tenets of the French Revolution.

La Lanterne magique patriotique, p. 24 alternate text (Case FRC 17560)

[Do you see Louis XVI, who follows the cart on foot and seems to be pushing it along, all while the "Austrian Committee" throws rocks to impede his passage? Do you see the vertigo that overcomes him all of a sudden? ... Do you see the patriotism that awakens, that spurs ahead, that runs after him, that stops him, and that cries out to him, "Where are you going, monarch who has been led astray?" What better place is there than at the bosom of your people? ... Weak king, be brave; don't listen to bad counsel anymore, neither from  bad priests nor from your villainous wife: one little push and the machine will roll.]

The magic lantern also makes an appearance in the Pamfletten-Verzameling, a collection of mostly Dutch pamphlets at the Newberry that deal with the history of the Netherlands and this country’s relations with other European nations. Lanterne magique, of, Toverlantaern (F 46 .665 v. 26 no. 35) is a satirical Dutch periodical published in 20 issues in 1782 and 1783. It satirizes the politics of the day, including the strained relations between Great Britain and the Netherlands during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780-1784), and makes many allusions to the newly formed United States, to which the Netherlands informally allied itself during the American Revolutionary War.

Lanterne magique, of, Toverlantaern (F 46 .655 v. 26 no. 35)

This periodical is written in the “Savoyard” language, or “Koeterwaals,” a comical gibberish mix of French and Dutch that was used by traveling magic lantern showmen from Wallonia. ( See media researcher Thomas Weynant’s Early Visual Media for translated excepts from the work of Dutch literary historian André Hanou on “Koeterwaals” and the relationship between satire, politics, and the magic lantern.)

It is not too late to experience an authentic magic lantern show. Magic lantern collector and performer Herman Bollaert has resurrected the art of the magic lantern show in Belgium, complete with “Koeterwaals,” in his live production, Magica Lanterna Galantee Show.

Of Pamphlets and Profanity

It is a poorly kept secret in Hollywood that profanity and toilet humor can, in a pinch, substitute for wit. If the French Revolution Collection (FRC) is any indication, this secret was well known during the time of the French Revolution.

There are a variety of pamphlets that present collections of vocabulary that generally goes ignored in French class. As it is the very nature of pamphlets to lend themselves to “underground” works, it is unsurprising that the language therein occasionally takes a turn for the grotesque. Considering that, like the underground newspapers of the SDS-era, most of these pamphlets (excluding most of those published by the Imprimerie nationale, the “silent majority,” of the pamphlets in the collection) were published by people holding extreme political views, the sometimes outrageous language should come as no surprise.

Case FRC 20149

One example of this type of pamphlet is Case FRC 20149, which purports to be by “M. Labride, docteur & vétérinaire du Pape.” Ostensibly a response to a petition from 30,000 Catholic citizens of Strasbourg, Labride argues that the petition was in fact published by only one disgruntled priest. He states, “J’ai bien cru qu’il y avoit quelques imbécilles à Strasbourg, mais, foutre, trente mille, oh ! ma foi, ce seroit trop fort.” Most of the pamphlet seems to be an excuse to make bawdy jokes at the expense of the clergy of various départements, including parodies of statements issued opposing the new government’s position towards the Catholic Church.

 

Case FRC 20640

Case FRC 20640 is a slightly more nuanced example of pamphlets using profanity as a replacement for wit. More accurately, in the case of this pamphlet, the anonymous author uses profanity (such as “quelle est donc cette bougre de bigarrure que nos foutus Alsaciens proposent”) to emphasize their  probably satirical (the final paragraph begins, “Le général La Pique continuera d’endoctriner les bons enfans”) criticisms of the Catholic Church, the aristocracy, and the royalist counterrevolutionaries.

Unfortunately,  we have yet to come across one of the most famous examples of this genre of pamphlet, Les Enfans de Sodome à l’Assemblée nationale, a petition filled with lurid engravings, arguing that the Assemblée nationale constituante, which was in the process of decriminalizing homosexuality and extending marriage rights to non-Catholics, should extend marriage rights to same-sex couples as well. Many of the pamphlets do present legitimate political issues, but (perhaps to avoid potential legal repercussions) present them in an outrageous, over-the top manner. This relatively casual approach to obscenity should come as no surprise – after all, Donatien Alphonse François de Sade was elected to public office during this time.