The Sand Creek Massacre
On the morning of November 29, 1864, John Chivington led 700 members of the Colorado Militia in an attack against a peaceful camp of Cheyenne and Arapaho at Sand Creek. The atrocities, which left more than 175 dead, were serious enough to warrant several investigations, including one that led to the publication of this report.
One survivor of Sand Creek was the remarkable Southern Cheyenne warrior and ledger book artist Ho-na-nist-to, or Howling Wolf, who was about fifteen years old when his encampment was attacked by Chivington’s troops. In this dramatic image made some ten years after Sand Creek, a group of Cheyenne warriors charge their attackers in a hail of bullets. Howling Wolf depicted himself as the last figure on the left, shooting into the ranks of the Colorado volunteers while his comrades turn and fire at an unseen enemy at their rear.