Jay Gould Hours
Jay Gould Hours (Valenciennes, ca. 1460).

Books of Hours

James Marrow, Emeritus Professor at Princeton University, identified the illuminations in this book of hours as the work of a hitherto unknown artist, Marc Caussin of Valenciennes. This scene depicts the Visitation of the Virgin Mary and Saint Elizabeth, framed by a rich border of floral and faunal motifs that features striking blues and oranges.
Gift of Roger S. Baskes, Vincent J. Buonanno, Nancy R. Corral, Seth Fagen, the late Gerald F. Fitzgerald, Charles C. Haffner III, Sandra Hindman, Victoria J. Herget and Robert K. Parsons, D. Carroll Joynes and Abby McCormick O’Neil, the Georges Lurcy Charitable and Educational Trust, the late Emil Massa, Rudy L. Ruggles, Jr., Gerald A. Weiner, and Mary Young.

Book of Hours, Use of Rome
Book of Hours, Use of Rome (Paris: Felix Baligault for Antoine Verard, 1500).

This book of hours, printed on vellum by Félix Baligault, has numerous woodcuts illuminated either by Baligault himself or by the bookseller and publisher, Antoine Vérard. This opening presents a full-page woodcut of the Nativity set inside a frame of classical architecture. Mary and Joseph kneel before the Christ Child, while onlookers gaze at the holy scene.
From the library of Henry Probasco.

Book of Hours, Use of Rome
Book of Hours, Use of Rome (Paris: Geoffroy Tory, 1525).

Printer Geoffroy Tory introduced the use of Roman typefaces, popular in Renaissance Italy, to the printing of books of hours and vernacular texts in France. This woodcut, inspired by illustrations in contemporary Italian printed books, depicts the Adoration of the Magi. The letter “F” in the lower margin on some pages refers to Francis I (reigned 1515-1547), to whom this volume is dedicated and whom Tory served as Royal Printer.
Purchased on the John M. Wing Book Fund.

Book of Hours, Use of Rome
Book of Hours, Use of Rome (Paris: Germain Hardouin, 1524).

 

The hand-painted woodcuts on these vellum pages illustrate the Old Testament story of King David’s seduction of Bathsheba, wife of Uriah. On the right, David spies Bathsheba in her bath and immediately desires her. On the left, David hands a scroll to Bathsheba’s husband with the covert order that he be killed, thereby permitting David to take the widowed Bathsheba as his wife. This erotic scene was a standard illustration of the Seven Penitential Psalms in medieval French books of hours.
Purchased on the John M. Wing Book Fund.

Book of Hours, Use of Rome
Book of Hours, Use of Rome (Paris: Guillaume Anabat, Germain Hardouin, and Gilles Hardouin, ca. 1507).

This book of hours, a devotional text printed on vellum with illuminated woodcuts, was produced by Guillaume Anabat, Germain Hardouin, and Gilles Hardouin, all printers and booksellers active between 1505 and 1511. The opening displays the Flagellation of Christ and the Crucifixion in brilliant colors with gold highlights.
Gift of Chester D. Tripp.

Book of Hours, Use of Rome
Book of Hours, Use of Rome (Paris: Philippe Pigouchet for Simon Vostre, 1487).

Early Parisian printers and publishers produced illuminated books of hours on vellum to make prayer books available to a wider audience, no longer restricting the genre to wealthy nobility. The woodcut on the right illustrates the Offices of the Dead. A pope, an emperor, and an abbot are each depicted alongside a skeleton, reminding the viewer that, regardless of one’s status, no one can escape death.
Purchased on the John M. Wing Book Fund.

Pocket Book of Hours and Breviary
Pocket Book of Hours and Breviary (Paris (?), ca. 1480), copy of Louis XI and Charlotte of Savoy.

This volume was made for the private devotions of Louis XI (reigned 1461-1483) and his wife Charlotte of Savoy (1441-1483) for use in the royal chapel of Saint Victor, a Parisian abbey on the left bank of the Seine. The illuminations are in the style of Jacques Besançon. The left folio depicts the Mass of the Dead in the presence of the abbot and canons of Saint Victor, and the right folio introduces the Short Hours of the Virgin.
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Donnelley and the Florence Gould Foundation.

Book of Hours, Use of Rome
Book of Hours, Use of Rome (France, ca. 1490).

This devotional manuscript was produced in France, possibly in Tours. The style of the illuminations resembles that of Jean Bourdichon, court painter to Louis XII and Anne of Brittany, three of whose books are included in this exhibition. Depicted here, with dramatic contrast of light and dark, is a foreboding night scene: the Betrayal of Christ by Judas in the Garden of Gethsemane.
From the library of Henry Probasco.