Welcome to 'Voices of Reform,' a site that presents items reflecting the diverse vocal manifestations of early modern sacred music.The expanding print industry of the sixteenth century was a strong contributor to the religious and social upheaval that defined the Reformation. Among the printed materials that circulated widely in Europe were musical books for the laity. Like the written word, music had the power to promote new thinking, and its expressive devices could be used more efficaciously than regular speech. The Newberry Library’s outstanding collection of early modern musical sources bears witness to the shifts in religious thinking persuasively communicated in retooled musical styles. Schola Antiqua has prepared selections from several Newberry books that testify to the religious dynamism of the sixteenth century and beyond it. At the core of the selections included in the program is an emphasis on the accessibility of sacred music, no longer relegated to the talented few of a chapel choir. This was music for all to sing, and sometimes even popular melodies were tapped to propagate new religious messages. Further, the use of the vernacular is also strongly in evidence, a deliberate subduing of the pre-supposed superiority of the Latin language in sacred music.
In commemoration of the quincentennial of Luther’s Reformation, we offer his iconic congregational melody “Ein feste burg” as well as his creedal hymn “Wir gleuben all an einen Gott”, both with complex harmonizations by Luther’s collaborator, Johann Walther. The program also contains metrical psalms, a signature musical style flowing from Calvinist theology. The most intricately-crafted works on the program are two five-voice pieces from William Byrd’s Psalmes, sonets, & songs of sadnes and pietie of 1588. Byrd is a fascinating figure as a recusant Catholic working under the firmly Anglican auspices of Queen Elizabeth I.
--Michael Alan Anderson, Artistic Director, Schola Antiqua of Chicago
Selections from the The Psalms of David Set in French Verse (Pseaumes de David: mis en rime francoise), 1562
Selections from Sacred Songs (Geistliche Lieder), 1580
Selections from Songs of the Latin Church for Sundays and all Feast Days (Cantiones ecclesiasticae latinae, Dominicis et festis diebus), 1545Selected images: Cantiones ecclesiasticae latinae [...]
Selections from The Pious Lark with her Coin-Box (La pieuse Alouette avec son tirelire), 1619-1621
Selection from A Song for the Landsknecht (Ein lied für die landsknecht gemach), 1546
Selection from Mexican Choir Books, vol. 4, 17th-18th centuryExplore Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3, Volume 5 and Volume 6 of the Mexican Choir Books.
Selections from William Byrd, Psalmes, Sonets, & Songs of Sadnes and Pietie, 1588Selected images: Psalmes, sonets, & songs of sadnes and pietie, made into musicke of fiue parts
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- Theodore Beza, Psalm 98: "Sing to the Lord a new song" (“Chantez à Dieu nouveau cantique”)
- "Ah, Charles, you mighty man!" ("Ach Karle grosmechtiger Man")
- Marot, Psalm 23: "My God nourishes me" (“Mon Dieu me pait”)
- Marot, Psalm 25: "To you my God" (“A toy mon Dieu”)
- Introit for the feast of Ascension: "The Lord of our salvation" ("Der Herzog unser Seligkeit")
- Introit for the feast of Ascension: "Ye Men of Galilee" ("Viri Galilae")
- Martin Luther, Psalm 46: "God, our refuge and strength" ("Deus noster refugium & virtus"), or "A Mighty Fortress" ("Ein feste Burg"); third verse harmonization by Johann Walther
- Creedal hymn: "We all believe in one God" ("Wir gleuben all an einen Gott"), Luther, 1524, third verse harmonization by Johann Walther
- Chanson spirituelle: "Make me my very sweet Jesus" ("Fais moy mon tres-doux Iesus"), on the popular air "Since Heaven wills it thus" ("Puis que le Ciel veut ainsi")
- Polyphonic rondeau for four voices: "Where are you going?" ("Ov va tu?")
- Hymn for the Virgin Mary: "Hail, star of the sea" ("Ave maris stella")
- Gospel reading, Matthew 21:1-9
- "O Lord, How Long Wilt Thou Forget"
- "Why Do I Use My Paper, Ink, and Pen"